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Effective Communication Skills / Effective Communication
« Last post by Rokeya on January 06, 2019, 10:30:05 PM »
Effective communication sounds like it should be instinctive. But all too often, when we try to communicate with others something goes astray. We say one thing, the other person hears something else, and misunderstandings, frustration, and conflicts ensue. This can cause problems in your home, school, and work relationships. For many of us, communicating more clearly and effectively requires learning some important skills. Whether you’re trying to improve communication with your spouse, kids, boss, or coworkers, learning these skills can deepen your connections to others, build greater trust and respect, and improve teamwork, problem solving, and your overall social and emotional health.

What is effective communication?
Effective communication is about more than just exchanging information. It’s about understanding the emotion and intentions behind the information. As well as being able to clearly convey a message, you need to also listen in a way that gains the full meaning of what’s being said and makes the other person feel heard and understood.

More than just the words you use, effective communication combines a set of 4 skills:

Engaged listening
Nonverbal communication
Managing stress in the moment
Asserting yourself in a respectful way
While these are learned skills, communication is more effective when it becomes spontaneous rather than formulaic. A speech that is read, for example, rarely has the same impact as a speech that’s delivered (or appears to be delivered) spontaneously. Of course, it takes time and effort to develop these skills. The more effort and practice you put in, the more instinctive and effective your communication skills will become.

What’s stopping you from communicating effectively?
Common barriers to effective communication include:

Stress and out-of-control emotion. When you’re stressed or emotionally overwhelmed, you’re more likely to misread other people, send confusing or off-putting nonverbal signals, and lapse into unhealthy knee-jerk patterns of behavior. To avoid conflict and misunderstandings, you can learn how to quickly calm down before continuing a conversation.

Lack of focus. You can’t communicate effectively when you’re multitasking. If you’re checking your phone, planning what you’re going to say next, or daydreaming, you’re almost certain to miss nonverbal cues in the conversation. To communicate effectively, you need to avoid distractions and stay focused.

Inconsistent body language. Nonverbal communication should reinforce what is being said, not contradict it. If you say one thing, but your body language says something else, your listener will likely feel that you’re being dishonest. For example, you can’t say “yes” while shaking your head no.

Negative body language. If you disagree with or dislike what’s being said, you might use negative body language to rebuff the other person’s message, such as crossing your arms, avoiding eye contact, or tapping your feet. You don’t have to agree with, or even like what’s being said, but to communicate effectively and not put the other person on the defensive, it’s important to avoid sending negative signals.

Effective communication skill 1: Become an engaged listener

When communicating with others, we often focus on what we should say. However, effective communication is less about talking and more about listening. Listening well means not just understanding the words or the information being communicated, but also understanding the emotions the speaker is trying to convey.

There’s a big difference between engaged listening and simply hearing. When you really listen—when you’re engaged with what’s being said—you’ll hear the subtle intonations in someone’s voice that tell you how that person is feeling and the emotions they’re trying to communicate. When you’re an engaged listener, not only will you better understand the other person, you’ll also make that person feel heard and understood, which can help build a stronger, deeper connection between you.

By communicating in this way, you’ll also experience a process that lowers stress and supports physical and emotional well-being. If the person you’re talking to is calm, for example, listening in an engaged way will help to calm you, too. Similarly, if the person is agitated, you can help calm them by listening in an attentive way and making the person feel understood.

If your goal is to fully understand and connect with the other person, listening in an engaged way will often come naturally. If it doesn’t, try the following tips. The more you practice them, the more satisfying and rewarding your interactions with others will become.

Tips for becoming an engaged listener
Focus fully on the speaker. You can’t listen in an engaged way if you’re constantly checking your phone or thinking about something else. You need to stay focused on the moment-to-moment experience in order to pick up the subtle nuances and important nonverbal cues in a conversation. If you find it hard to concentrate on some speakers, try repeating their words over in your head—it’ll reinforce their message and help you stay focused.

Favor your right ear. As strange as it sounds, the left side of the brain contains the primary processing centers for both speech comprehension and emotions. Since the left side of the brain is connected to the right side of the body, favoring your right ear can help you better detect the emotional nuances of what someone is saying.

Avoid interrupting or trying to redirect the conversation to your concerns. By saying something like, “If you think that’s bad, let me tell you what happened to me.” Listening is not the same as waiting for your turn to talk. You can’t concentrate on what someone’s saying if you’re forming what you’re going to say next. Often, the speaker can read your facial expressions and know that your mind’s elsewhere.

Show your interest in what’s being said. Nod occasionally, smile at the person, and make sure your posture is open and inviting. Encourage the speaker to continue with small verbal comments like “yes” or “uh huh.”

Try to set aside judgment. In order to communicate effectively with someone, you don’t have to like them or agree with their ideas, values, or opinions. However, you do need to set aside your judgment and withhold blame and criticism in order to fully understand them. The most difficult communication, when successfully executed, can often lead to an unlikely connection with someone.

Provide feedback. If there seems to be a disconnect, reflect what has been said by paraphrasing. “What I’m hearing is,” or “Sounds like you are saying,” are great ways to reflect back. Don’t simply repeat what the speaker has said verbatim, though—you’ll sound insincere or unintelligent. Instead, express what the speaker’s words mean to you. Ask questions to clarify certain points: “What do you mean when you say…” or “Is this what you mean?”

Hear the emotion behind the words
It’s the higher frequencies of human speech that impart emotion. You can become more attuned to these frequencies—and thus better able to understand what others are really saying—by exercising the tiny muscles of your middle ear (the smallest in the body). You can do this by singing, playing a wind instrument, or listening to certain types of high-frequency music (a Mozart symphony or violin concerto, for example, rather than low-frequency rock, pop, or hip-hop).

Skill 2: Pay attention to nonverbal signals
The way you look, listen, move, and react to another person tells them more about how you’re feeling than words alone ever can. Nonverbal communication, or body language, includes facial expressions, body movement and gestures, eye contact, posture, the tone of your voice, and even your muscle tension and breathing.

Developing the ability to understand and use nonverbal communication can help you connect with others, express what you really mean, navigate challenging situations, and build better relationships at home and work.

You can enhance effective communication by using open body language—arms uncrossed, standing with an open stance or sitting on the edge of your seat, and maintaining eye contact with the person you’re talking to.
You can also use body language to emphasize or enhance your verbal message—patting a friend on the back while complimenting him on his success, for example, or pounding your fists to underline your message.
Improve how you read nonverbal communication
Be aware of individual differences. People from different countries and cultures tend to use different nonverbal communication gestures, so it’s important to take age, culture, religion, gender, and emotional state into account when reading body language signals. An American teen, a grieving widow, and an Asian businessman, for example, are likely to use nonverbal signals differently.

Look at nonverbal communication signals as a group. Don’t read too much into a single gesture or nonverbal cue. Consider all of the nonverbal signals you receive, from eye contact to tone of voice to body language. Anyone can slip up occasionally and let eye contact go, for example, or briefly cross their arms without meaning to. Consider the signals as a whole to get a better “read” on a person.

Improve how you deliver nonverbal communication
Use nonverbal signals that match up with your words rather than contradict them. If you say one thing, but your body language says something else, your listener will feel confused or suspect that you’re being dishonest. For example, sitting with your arms crossed and shaking your head doesn’t match words telling the other person that you agree with what they’re saying.

Adjust your nonverbal signals according to the context. The tone of your voice, for example, should be different when you’re addressing a child than when you’re addressing a group of adults. Similarly, take into account the emotional state and cultural background of the person you’re interacting with.

Avoid negative body language. Instead, use body language to convey positive feelings, even when you’re not actually experiencing them. If you’re nervous about a situation—a job interview, important presentation, or first date, for example—you can use positive body language to signal confidence, even though you’re not feeling it. Instead of tentatively entering a room with your head down, eyes averted, and sliding into a chair, try standing tall with your shoulders back, smiling and maintaining eye contact, and delivering a firm handshake. It will make you feel more self-confident and help to put the other person at ease.

Skill 3: Keep stress in check
How many times have you felt stressed during a disagreement with your spouse, kids, boss, friends, or coworkers and then said or done something you later regretted? If you can quickly relieve stress and return to a calm state, you’ll not only avoid such regrets, but in many cases you’ll also help to calm the other person as well. It’s only when you’re in a calm, relaxed state that you’ll be able to know whether the situation requires a response, or whether the other person’s signals indicate it would be better to remain silent.

In situations such as a job interview, business presentation, high-pressure meeting, or introduction to a loved one’s family, for example, it’s important to manage your emotions, think on your feet, and effectively communicate under pressure.

Communicate effectively by staying calm under pressure
Use stalling tactics to give yourself time to think. Ask for a question to be repeated or for clarification of a statement before you respond.
Pause to collect your thoughts. Silence isn’t necessarily a bad thing—pausing can make you seem more in control than rushing your response.
Make one point and provide an example or supporting piece of information. If your response is too long or you waffle about a number of points, you risk losing the listener’s interest. Follow one point with an example and then gauge the listener’s reaction to tell if you should make a second point.
Deliver your words clearly. In many cases, how you say something can be as important as what you say. Speak clearly, maintain an even tone, and make eye contact. Keep your body language relaxed and open.
Wrap up with a summary and then stop. Summarize your response and then stop talking, even if it leaves a silence in the room. You don’t have to fill the silence by continuing to talk.
Quick stress relief for effective communication
When a conversation starts to get heated, you need something quick and immediate to bring down the emotional intensity. By learning to quickly reduce stress in the moment, you can safely take stock of any strong emotions you’re experiencing, regulate your feelings, and behave appropriately.

Recognize when you’re becoming stressed. Your body will let you know if you’re stressed as you communicate. Are your muscles or stomach tight? Are your hands clenched? Is your breath shallow? Are you “forgetting” to breathe?

Take a moment to calm down
before deciding to continue a conversation or postpone it.

Bring your senses to the rescue. The best way to rapidly and reliably relieve stress is through the senses—sight, sound, touch, taste, smell—or movement. For example, you could pop a peppermint in your mouth, squeeze a stress ball in your pocket, take a few deep breaths, clench and relax your muscles, or simply recall a soothing, sensory-rich image. Each person responds differently to sensory input, so you need to find a coping mechanism that is soothing to you.

Look for humor in the situation. When used appropriately, humor is a great way to relieve stress when communicating. When you or those around you start taking things too seriously, find a way to lighten the mood by sharing a joke or an amusing story.

Be willing to compromise. Sometimes, if you can both bend a little, you’ll be able to find a happy middle ground that reduces the stress levels for everyone concerned. If you realize that the other person cares much more about an issue than you do, compromise may be easier for you and a good investment for the future of the relationship.

Agree to disagree, if necessary, and take time away from the situation so everyone can calm down. Go for a stroll outside if possible, or spend a few minutes meditating. Physical movement or finding a quiet place to regain your balance can quickly reduce stress.

Skill 4: Assert yourself
Direct, assertive expression makes for clear communication and can help boost your self-esteem and decision-making skills. Being assertive means expressing your thoughts, feelings, and needs in an open and honest way, while standing up for yourself and respecting others. It does NOT mean being hostile, aggressive, or demanding. Effective communication is always about understanding the other person, not about winning an argument or forcing your opinions on others.

To improve your assertiveness:
Value yourself and your options. They are as important as anyone else’s.
Know your needs and wants. Learn to express them without infringing on the rights of others
Express negative thoughts in a positive way. It’s OK to be angry, but you must remain respectful as well.
Receive feedback positively. Accept compliments graciously, learn from your mistakes, ask for help when needed.

Learn to say “no.” Know your limits and don’t let others take advantage of you. Look for alternatives so everyone feels good about the outcome.
Developing assertive communication techniques

Empathetic assertion conveys sensitivity to the other person. First, recognize the other person’s situation or feelings, then state your needs or opinion. “I know you’ve been very busy at work, but I want you to make time for us as well.”

Escalating assertion can be employed when your first attempts are not successful. You become increasingly firm as time progresses, which may include outlining consequences if your needs are not met. For example, “If you don’t abide by the contract, I’ll be forced to pursue legal action.”

Practice assertiveness in lower risk situations to help build up your confidence. Or ask friends or family if you can practice assertiveness techniques on them first.

Source: https://www.helpguide.org
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Introduction to Google AdWords / How do we actually use Google AdWords?
« Last post by sultana15-1090 on January 01, 2019, 09:19:38 PM »
How do we actually use Google AdWords?
Let us suppose you run a business that sells ‘bananas’.
You have a wonderful website that has all the info a banana fan could ever wish for. You don’t get many visits to your website, perhaps because it is not a very search engine friendly website – or perhaps you just have a lot of competitors selling bananas as well.

So you decide to try Google AdWords. The first thing you need to do is create an AdWords campaign. This is very much like creating an advertising campaign with a brochure or a flyer. Only in this case – your campaign will be online. You create your campaigns within the AdWords website and Google will assist you with each and every step.You can create as many of these campaigns as you wish. If for example, you create three differently worded campaigns – Google will rotate them for you and after a few days you will be able to log in to your account and see which campaign performed best. Deleting campaigns or creating new ones is fast and easy.

Once you have created your AdWords campaign you can specify how much money you are willing to spend on advertising. This is what we call the ‘budget’ and for the sake of our bananas let us suppose we are willing to spend €5 per day.

Once we have set our budget, Google will display our ads for as long as we have not exhausted that €5. If we spend our full budget on a particular day, Google will suspend our campaign until the following day. This way we can always be sure that we are not overspending and don’t need to worry about turning our AdWords campaign off at any time.

So lets us assume we are willing to pay 25 cents each time someone clicks on our AdWords campaign and visits our site. That would mean our ads can be clicked on 20 times in one day before our budget limit is reached. 25 cents is actually what we are willing to pay-per-click. This payment is called a ‘bid’. Starting to make sense now?

But there is more!! Not only do we set a daily budget – we also choose how much money we are willing to spend each time someone clicks on our ad for specific keywords. It is these keywords that are responsible for our ads being shown in the first place.
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IT & Information / IT jobs in high demand
« Last post by Noor E Alam on December 27, 2018, 11:42:24 AM »
তথ্যপ্রযুক্তি খাতে সম্প্রতি তথ্য ফাঁস আর ম্যালওয়্যার আক্রমণ বেড়ে যাওয়ায় প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলো সাইবার নিরাপত্তা জোরদার করছে। এমন সময়ে একটি পদে চাকরির চাহিদা সবচেয়ে বেশি বাড়তে দেখা গেছে। তথ্যপ্রযুক্তি খাতে এখনকার চাহিদাসম্পন্ন ওই পদের নাম প্রধান সাইবার নিরাপত্তা কর্মকর্তা বা চিফ ইনফরমেশন সিকিউরিটি অফিসার (সিআইএসও)।

মানবসম্পদ নিয়ে কাজ করা বিটিআই এক্সিকিউটিভ সার্চ নামের একটি প্রতিষ্ঠানের করা তথ্য অনুযায়ী, আগামী বছর অর্থাৎ ২০১৯ সালেও সিআইএসও পদের ব্যাপক চাহিদা থাকবে। এ পদে ২০ শতাংশ পর্যন্ত চাহিদা বাড়তে দেখা যাবে। এর বাইরেও সাইবার নিরাপত্তা খাতে আরও বেশি চাকরি হবে।

Eprothom Aloবিটিআইয়ের তথ্য অনুযায়ী, বিশ্বব্যাপী সাইবার নিরাপত্তা বিশেষজ্ঞদের চাহিদা আছে। শুধু ভারতে এ পদের কর্মকর্তারা বছরে গড়ে ৮৫ লাখ রুপি পর্যন্ত বেতন পান। কোনো প্রতিষ্ঠানের সিটিও বা চিফ টেকনোলজি অফিসার হলে বেতন আরও বেশি হয়। সিআইএসওদের তুলনায় সিটিওদের বেতন ২০ শতাংশ বেশি হয়।

এ খাতের বিশেষজ্ঞরা বলছেন, কয়েক বছর ধরে বিভিন্ন প্রতিষ্ঠানে সাইবার নিরাপত্তার বিষয়টি জোর দেওয়া হচ্ছে। এতে এ খাতে তথ্যপ্রযুক্তির অন্যান্য চাকরির চেয়ে তিন গুণ চাকরির সুযোগ সৃষ্টি হয়েছে।

ব্যাংক, স্বাস্থ্য, ই-কমার্স, প্রকৌশলসহ গ্রাহকসেবার বিভিন্ন খাতে সিআইএসওদের চাহিদা বেশি দেখা যাচ্ছে।

গবেষকদের তথ্য অনুযায়ী, বিশ্বজুড়ে ৩০ লাখ সাইবার নিরাপত্তা খাতের পেশাদার ব্যক্তির ঘাটতি রয়েছে। এর অধিকাংশই এশিয়া ও প্রশান্ত মহাসাগরীয় অঞ্চলের। এ অঞ্চলে ২০ লাখ সাইবার নিরাপত্তা পেশাদার ব্যক্তির ঘাটতি আছে।

সিআইএসওর কাজ হচ্ছে তথ্যপ্রযুক্তি অবকাঠামো, নেটওয়ার্কিং, সিকিউরিটি প্ল্যাটফর্ম ও ভার্চ্যুয়াল অবকাঠামো খাতের নেতৃত্ব দেওয়া। অনেক প্রতিষ্ঠান এখন তাদের কারিগরি বিভাগের কর্মকর্তাদের এ ধরনের প্রশিক্ষণের জন্য বিনিয়োগও করছে।

Source:- Prothom Alo
4
Business Industry news / 5.1 What Is an Entrepreneur?
« Last post by Rokeya on December 25, 2018, 11:35:03 PM »
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 CONTENTS
EXPLORING BUSINESS
5.1 What Is an Entrepreneur?
Learning Objectives
Define entrepreneur.
Describe the three characteristics of entrepreneurial activity.
Identify five potential advantages to starting your own business.
Explain the differences among three types of start-up firms.
In developing BTIO and Realityworks Inc., the Jurmains were doing what entrepreneurs do (and doing it very well). In fact, Mary was nominated three times for the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award and named 2001 Wisconsin Entrepreneurial Woman of the Year by the National Association of Women Business Owners. So what, exactly, is an entrepreneur? What does an entrepreneur do? According to one definition, an entrepreneur is an “individual who starts a new business,” and that’s true as far as it goes. Another definition identifies an entrepreneur as someone who uses “resources to implement innovative ideas for new, thoughtfully planned ventures,” (Canadian Foundation for Economic Education, 2008) which is also true as far as it goes. But an important component of a satisfactory definition is still missing. To appreciate fully what it is, let’s go back to the story of the Jurmains, for whom entrepreneurship seems to have worked out quite well. We hasten to point out that, in 1993, the Jurmains were both unemployed—Rick had been laid off by General Dynamics Corp., and Mary by the San Diego Gas and Electric Company. While they were watching the show about teenagers and flour sacks, they were living off a loan from her father and the returns from a timely investment in coffee futures. Rick recalls that the idea for a method of creating BTIO came to him while “I was awake in bed, worrying about being unemployed.” He was struggling to find a way to feed his family. He had to make the first forty simulators himself, and at the end of the first summer, BTIO had received about four hundred orders—a promising start, perhaps, but, at $250 per baby (less expenses), not exactly a windfall. “We were always about one month away from bankruptcy,” recalls Mary.

At the same time, it’s not as if the Jurmains started up BTIO simply because they had no “conventional” options for improving their financial prospects. Rick, as we’ve seen, was an aerospace engineer, and his résumé includes work on space-shuttle missions at NASA. Mary, who has not only a head for business but also a degree in industrial engineering, has worked at the Johnson Space Center. Therefore, the idea of replacing a sack of flour with a computer-controlled simulator wasn’t necessarily rocket science for the couple. But taking advantage of that idea—choosing to start a new business and to commit themselves to running it—was a risk. Risk taking is the missing component that we’re looking for in a definition of entrepreneurship, and so we’ll define an entrepreneur as someone who identifies a business opportunity and assumes the risk of creating and running a business to take advantage of it.

The Nature of Entrepreneurship
If we look a little more closely at the definition of entrepreneurship, we can identify three characteristics of entrepreneurial activity (Dollinger, 2003):

Innovation. Entrepreneurship generally means offering a new product, applying a new technique or technology, opening a new market, or developing a new form of organization for the purpose of producing or enhancing a product.
Running a business. A business, as we saw in Chapter 1 “The Foundations of Business”, combines resources to produce goods or services. Entrepreneurship means setting up a business to make a profit.
Risk taking. The term risk means that the outcome of the entrepreneurial venture can’t be known. Entrepreneurs, therefore, are always working under a certain degree of uncertainty, and they can’t know the outcomes of many of the decisions that they have to make. Consequently, many of the steps they take are motivated mainly by their confidence in the innovation and in their understanding of the business environment in which they’re operating.
It isn’t hard to recognize all three of these characteristics in the entrepreneurial experience of the Jurmains. They certainly had an innovative idea. But was it a good business idea? In a practical sense, a “good” business idea has to become something more than just an idea. If, like the Jurmains, you’re interested in generating income from your idea, you’ll probably need to turn it into a product—something that you can market because it satisfies a need. If—again, like the Jurmains—you want to develop a product, you’ll need some kind of organization to coordinate the resources necessary to make it a reality (in other words, a business). Risk enters the equation when, like the Jurmains, you make the decision to start up a business and when you commit yourself to managing it.

A Few Things to Know about Going into Business for Yourself

Distinguishing Entrepreneurs from Small Business Owners
Though most entrepreneurial ventures begin as small businesses, not all small business owners are entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are innovators who start companies to create new or improved products. They strive to meet a need that’s not being met, and their goal is to grow the business and eventually expand into other markets.

In contrast, many people either start or buy small businesses for the sole purpose of providing an income for themselves and their families. They do not intend to be particularly innovative, nor do they plan to expand significantly. This desire to operate is what’s sometimes called a “lifestyle business” (Allen, 2001). The neighborhood pizza parlor or beauty shop, the self-employed consultant who works out of the home, and even a local printing company—all of these are typical lifestyle businesses. In Section 5.2 “The Importance of Small Business to the U.S. Economy”, we discuss the positive influences that both lifestyle and entrepreneurial businesses have on the U.S. economy.
Key Takeaways
An entrepreneur is someone who identifies a business opportunity and assumes the risk of creating and running a business to take advantage of it.
There are three characteristics of entrepreneurial activity:

Innovating. An entrepreneur offers a new product, applies a new technique or technology, opens a new market, or develops a new form of organization for the purpose of producing or enhancing a product.
Running a business. Entrepreneurship means setting up a business to make a profit from an innovative product or process.
Risk taking. Risk means that an outcome is unknown. Entrepreneurs, therefore, are always working under a certain degree of uncertainty, and they can’t know the outcomes of many of the decisions that they have to make.
According to the SBA, a government agency that provides assistance to small businesses, there are five advantages to starting a business—“for the right person”:

Be your own boss.
Accommodate a desired lifestyle.
Achieve financial independence.
Enjoy creative freedom.
Use your skills and knowledge.
To determine whether you’re one of the “right people” to exploit the advantages of starting your own business, the SBA suggests that you assess your strengths and weaknesses by asking yourself the following questions:

Am I a self-starter?
How well do I get along with different personalities?
How good am I at making decisions?
Do I have the physical and emotional stamina?
How well do I plan and organize?
Is my drive strong enough?
How will my business affect my family?
Though most entrepreneurial ventures begin as small businesses, not all small business owners are entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are innovators who start companies to create new or improved products. In contrast, many people start businesses for the purpose of providing an income for themselves and their families. This type of businesses is sometimes called a “lifestyle business.”

Source: https://open.lib.umn.edu/exploringbusiness/chapter/5-1-what-is-an-entrepreneur
5
Business Industry news / 5.2 The Importance of Small Business to the U.S. Economy
« Last post by Rokeya on December 25, 2018, 11:20:15 PM »
What Is a “Small Business”?
To assess the value of small businesses to the U.S. economy, we first need to know what constitutes a small business. Let’s start by looking at the criteria used by the Small Business Administration. According to the SBA, a small business is one that is independently owned and operated, exerts little influence in its industry, and (with a few exceptions) has fewer than five hundred employees (U.S. Small Business Administration, 2011).

Why Are Small Businesses Important?
Small business constitutes a major force in the U.S. economy. There are more than twenty-seven million small businesses in this country, and they generate about 50 percent of our gross domestic product (GDP) (Office of Advocacy, 2010). The millions of individuals who have started businesses in the United States have shaped the business world as we know it today. Some small business founders like Henry Ford and Thomas Edison have even gained places in history. Others, including Bill Gates (Microsoft), Sam Walton (Wal-Mart), Steve Jobs (Apple Computer), Michael Dell (Dell, Inc.), Steve Case (AOL), Pierre Omidyar (eBay), and Larry Page and Sergey Brin (Google), have changed the way business is done today. Still millions of others have collectively contributed to our standard of living.

Aside from contributions to our general economic well-being, founders of small businesses also contribute to growth and vitality in specific areas of economic and socioeconomic development. In particular, small businesses do the following:

Create jobs[/b]
Spark innovation
Provide opportunities for many people, including women and minorities, to achieve financial success and independence
In addition, they complement the economic activity of large organizations by providing them with components, services, and distribution of their products.

Let’s take a closer look at each of these contributions.

Job Creation
The majority of U.S. workers first entered the business world working for small businesses. Today, half of all U.S. adults either are self-employed or work for businesses with fewer than five hundred employees (U.S. Small Business Administration, 2011). Although the split between those working in small companies and those working in big companies is about even, small firms hire more frequently and fire more frequently than do big companies (Headd, 2011). Why is this true? At any given point in time, lots of small companies are started and some expand. These small companies need workers and so hiring takes place. But the survival and expansion rates for small firms is poor, and so, again at any given point in time, many small businesses close or contract and workers lose their jobs. Fortunately, over time more jobs are added by small firms than are taken away, which results in a net increase in the number of workers. Table 5.1 “Small Firm Job Gains and Losses, 1993–2008 (in millions of jobs)” reports the net increase in jobs generated by small firms for the fifteen-year period of 1993 to 2008 and breaks it down into job gains from openings and expansions and job losses from closings and contractions.

Table 5.1 Small Firm Job Gains and Losses, 1993–2008 (in millions of jobs)

Job Gains From                                          Job Losses From
Net Change   Openings      Expansions    Closings    Contractions
20.7               105.2       398.3             97.7          385.1

The size of the net increase in the number of workers for any given year depends on a number of factors, with the economy being at the top of the list. A strong economy encourages individuals to start small businesses and expand existing small companies, which adds to the workforce. A weak economy does just the opposite: discourages start-ups and expansions, which decreases the workforce through layoffs. Table 5.1 “Small Firm Job Gains and Losses, 1993–2008 (in millions of jobs)” reports the job gains from start-ups and expansions and job losses from business closings and contractions.

Innovation
Given the financial resources available to large businesses, you’d expect them to introduce virtually all the new products that hit the market. According to the SBA, small companies develop more patents per employee than do larger companies. During a recent four-year period, large firms generated 1.7 patents per hundred employees, whereas small firms generated an impressive 26.5 patents per employee (Breitzman & Hicks, 2011). Over the years, the list of important innovations by small firms has included the airplane and air-conditioning, the defibrillator and DNA fingerprinting, oral contraceptives and overnight national delivery, the safety razor, strobe lights, and the zipper (Baumol, 2005).

Small business owners are also particularly adept at finding new ways of doing old things. In 1994, for example, a young computer-science graduate working on Wall Street came up with the novel idea of selling books over the Internet. During the first year of operations, sales at Jeff Bezos’s new company—Amazon.com—reached half a million dollars. In less than twenty years, annual sales had topped $34 billion (Yahoo.com, 2011). Not only did his innovative approach to online retailing make Bezos enormously rich, but it also established a viable model for the e-commerce industry.

Why are small businesses so innovative? For one thing, they tend to offer environments that appeal to individuals with the talent to invent new products or improve the way things are done. Fast decision making is encouraged, their research programs tend to be focused, and their compensation structures typically reward top performers. According to one SBA study, the supportive environments of small firms are roughly thirteen times more innovative per employee than the less innovation-friendly environments in which large firms traditionally operate (Baumol, 2005).

The success of small businesses in fostering creativity has not gone unnoticed by big businesses. In fact, many large companies have responded by downsizing to act more like small companies. Some large organizations now have separate work units whose purpose is to spark innovation. Individuals working in these units can focus their attention on creating new products that can then be developed by the company.

Opportunities for Women and Minorities

Small business is the portal through which many people enter the economic mainstream. Business ownership allows individuals, including women and minorities, to achieve financial success, as well as pride in their accomplishments. While the majority of small businesses are still owned by white males, the past two decades have seen a substantial increase in the number of businesses owned by women and minorities. Figure 5.3 “Businesses Owned by Women and Minorities” gives you an idea of how many American businesses are owned by women and minorities, and indicates how much the numbers grew between 1982 and 2007 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011).

https://open.lib.umn.edu/app/uploads/sites/15/2015/04/152dbda6b036e1371f32f2846e7bd630.jpg

What Small Businesses Do for Big Businesses
Small firms complement large firms in a number of ways. They supply many of the components needed by big companies. For example, the U.S. automakers depend on more than 1,700 suppliers to provide them with the parts needed to make their cars. While many of the suppliers are large, there are hundreds of smaller companies that provide a substantial portion of the 8,000 to 12,000 parts that go into each vehicle (Canis & Yacobucci, 2011). Small firms also provide large ones with such services as accounting, legal, and insurance. Many small firms provide outsourcing services to large firms—that is, they hire themselves out to help with special projects or handle certain business functions. A large firm, for example, might hire a small one to handle its billing or collection services or to manage its health care benefits. A large company might contract with a small information technology firm to manage its Web site or oversee software upgrades.

Small companies provide another valuable service to large companies by acting as sales agents for their products. For example, automobile dealerships, which are generally small businesses, sell vehicles for the big car makers. Local sporting goods stores sell athletic shoes made by industry giants, such as Adidas and Nike. Your corner deli sells products made by large companies, such as Coca-Cola and Frito-Lay.

                                                                            Key Takeaways
According to the SBA, a small business is independently owned and operated, exerts little influence in its industry, and (with minimal exceptions) has fewer than five hundred employees.
The nearly twenty-seven million small businesses in the United States generate about 50 percent of our GDP. They also contribute to growth and vitality in several important areas of economic and socioeconomic development. In particular, small businesses do the following:

Create jobs
Spark innovation
Provide opportunities for women and minorities to achieve financial success and independence
Small businesses tend to foster environments that appeal to individuals with the talent to invent new products or improve the way things are done. They typically make faster decisions, their research programs often are focused, and their compensation structures frequently reward top performers.
Small firms supply many of the components needed by big companies. They also provide large firms with such services as accounting, legal, and insurance, and many provide outsourcing services to large companies—that is, they hire themselves out to help with special projects or handle certain business functions. Small companies (such as automotive dealerships) often act as sales agents for the products of large businesses (for example, car makers).

                                                                  References
Baumol, W. J., “Small Firms: Why Market-Driven Innovation Can’t Get Along without Them” (U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy, December 2005), table 8.1, 186, http://www.sba.gov/advo/research/sbe_05_ch08.pdf (accessed October 10, 2008).

Breitzman, A., and Diana Hicks, “An Analysis of Small Business Patents by Industry and Firm Size, Office of Advocacy, Small Business Administration,” U.S. Small Business Administration, http://archive.sba.gov/advo/research/rs335tot.pdf, (accessed August 30, 2011).

Canis, B., and Brent D. Yacobucci, “The U.S. Motor Vehicle Industry: Confronting a New Dynamic in the Global Economy, Congressional Research Service,” Federation of American Scientists, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41154.pdf (accessed August 30, 2011).

Headd, B., “An Analysis of Small Business and Jobs,” U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy, http://archive.sba.gov/advo/research/rs359tot.pdf (accessed August 30, 2011).

Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration, The Small Business Economy: A Report to the President, Appendix A (December 2010), http://www.sba.gov/content/small-business-economy-2010 (accessed August 28, 2011).

U.S. Census Bureau, “Estimates of Business Ownership by Gender, Ethnicity, Race, and Veteran Status: 2007,” U.S. Census Bureau, http://www.census.gov/econ/sbo/#hispanic (accessed August 30, 2011).

U.S. Small Business Administration, “How Important Are Small Businesses to the U.S. Economy?,” U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy, http://www.sba.gov/advocacy/7495/8420, (accessed August 28, 2011).

U.S. Small Business Administration, “What is SBAs Definition of a Small Business Concern?,” U.S. Small Business Administration, http://www.sba.gov/content/what-sbas-definition-small-business-concern, (accessed August 28, 2011).

Yahoo.com, Amazon Income Statement, http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=AMZN&ql=0 (accessed August 30, 2011).


Source: https://open.lib.umn.edu
6
Business Industry news / 5.3 What Industries Are Small Businesses In?
« Last post by Rokeya on December 25, 2018, 11:06:52 PM »
If you want to start a new business, you probably should avoid certain types of businesses. You’d have a hard time, for example, setting up a new company to make automobiles or aluminum, because you’d have to make tremendous investments in property, plant, and equipment, and raise an enormous amount of capital to pay your workforce.

Fortunately, plenty of opportunities are still available if you’re willing to set your sights a little lower. Many types of businesses require reasonable initial investments, and not surprisingly, these are the ones that usually present attractive small business opportunities.

Industries by Sector
We’ll have more to say about industries and how to analyze them in later chapters. Here, we’ll simply define an industry as a group of companies that compete with one another to sell similar products, and we’ll focus on the relationship between a small business and the industry in which it operates. First, we’ll discuss the industries in which small businesses tend to be concentrated. To do this, we’ll divide businesses into two broad types of industries, or sectors: the goods-producing sector and the service-producing sector.

The goods-producing sector includes all businesses that produce tangible goods. Generally speaking, companies in this sector are involved in manufacturing, construction, and agriculture.
The service-producing sector includes all businesses that provide services but don’t make tangible goods. They may be involved in retail and wholesale trade, transportation, finance, insurance, real estate, arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodations, food service, education, and such professional activities as technical services, health care, advertising, accounting, and personal services.

https://open.lib.umn.edu/app/uploads/sites/15/2015/12/5.3.01.jpg

About 20 percent of small businesses in the United States are concentrated in the goods-producing sector. The remaining 80% are in the service sector (Small Business Administration, 2010). The high concentration of small businesses in the service-producing sector reflects the makeup of the overall U.S. economy. Over the past fifty years, the service-producing sector has been growing at an impressive rate. In 1960, for example, the goods-producing sector accounted for 38 percent of GDP, the service-producing sector for 62 percent. By 2010, the balance had shifted dramatically, with the goods-producing sector accounting for only 22 percent of GDP, while the service-producing sector had grown to 77 percent (The World Fact Book, 2011).

Goods-Producing Sector
The largest areas of the goods-producing sector are construction and manufacturing. Construction businesses are often started by skilled workers, such as electricians, painters, plumbers, and home builders. They tend to be small and generally work on local projects. Though manufacturing is primarily the domain of large businesses, there are exceptions. BTIO/Realityworks, for example, is a manufacturing enterprise (components come from Ohio and China, and assembly is done in Wisconsin).

Another small manufacturer is Reveal Entertainment, which was founded in 1996 to make and distribute board games. Founder Jeffrey Berndt started with a single award-winning game—a three-dimensional finance and real estate game called “Tripoly”—and now boasts a product line of dozens of board games. There are strategy games, like “Squad Seven,” which uses a CD soundtrack to guide players through a jungle in search of treasure; children’s games, like “Portfolio Junior,” which teaches kids the rudiments of personal finances; and party games, like “So Sue Me,” in which players get to experience the fun side of suing their neighbors and taking their possessions (Reveal Entertainment, 2011).

How about making something out of trash? Daniel Blake never followed his mother’s advice at dinner when she told him to eat everything on his plate. When he served as a missionary in Puerto Rico, Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao after his first year in college, he noticed that the families he stayed with didn’t follow her advice either. But they didn’t throw their uneaten food into the trash. Instead they put it on a compost pile and used the mulch to nourish their vegetable gardens and fruit trees. While eating at an all-you-can-eat breakfast buffet back home at Brigham Young University, Blake was amazed to see volumes of uneaten food in the trash. This triggered an idea: why not turn the trash into money. Two years later, he was running his company—EcoScraps—that collects 40 tons of food scraps a day from 75 grocers (including Costco) and turns it into high-quality potting soil that he sells online and to nurseries and garden supply stores. What’s his profit from this venture? Almost half a million dollars on sales of $1.5 million. Beats cleaning your plate. One person’s trash is another person’s treasure.

Service-Producing Sector
Many small businesses in this sector are retailers—they buy goods from other firms and sell them to consumers, in stores, by phone, through direct mailings, or over the Internet. In fact, entrepreneurs are turning increasingly to the Internet as a venue for start-up ventures. Take Tony Roeder, for example, who had a fascination with the red Radio Flyer wagons that many of today’s adults had owned as children. In 1998, he started an online store through Yahoo! to sell red wagons from his home. In three years, he turned his online store into a million-dollar business (Isidro, 2011). When we talk about Internet entrepreneurs, we have to mention Mark Zuckerberg, the king of Internet entrepreneurship. As is well known, he founded Facebook while a student at Harvard and, by age 27, had built up a personal wealth of $13.5 billion (Forbes, 2011).

Other small business owners in this sector are wholesalers—they sell products to businesses that buy them for resale or for company use. A local bakery, for example, is acting as a wholesaler when it sells desserts to a restaurant, which then resells them to its customers. A small business that buys flowers from a local grower (the manufacturer) and resells them to a retail store is another example of a wholesaler.

A high proportion of small businesses in this sector provide professional, business, or personal services. Doctors and dentists are part of the service industry, as are insurance agents, accountants, and lawyers. So are businesses that provide personal services, such as dry cleaning and hairdressing.

David Marcks, for example, entered the service industry about fourteen years ago when he learned that his border collie enjoyed chasing geese at the golf course where he worked. Anyone who’s been on a golf course recently knows exactly what the goose problem is. While they are lovely to look at, they answer the call of nature on tees, fairways, and greens. That’s where Marcks’s company, Geese Police, comes in: Marcks employs specially trained dogs to chase the geese away. He now has twenty-seven trucks, thirty-two border collies, and five offices. Golf courses account for only about 5 percent of his business, as his dogs now patrol corporate parks and playgrounds as well (Isidro, 2008)1.

https://open.lib.umn.edu/app/uploads/sites/15/2015/04/abb3c2f0553e6315ecaaee7b55184d7c.jpg

                                                                                  Key Takeaways
An industry is a group of companies that compete with one another to sell similar products. There are two broad types of industries, or sectors:

The goods-producing sector includes all businesses that produce tangible goods.
The service-producing sector includes all businesses that provide services but don’t make tangible goods.
The largest areas of the goods-producing sector are construction and manufacturing. Construction businesses are often started by skilled workers, such as electricians, painters, plumbers, and home builders. These businesses tend to be small and generally focused on local projects. Though manufacturing is primarily the domain of large businesses, there are exceptions.
Many small businesses in the service-producing sector are retailers—they buy goods from other firms and resell them to consumers, in stores, by phone, through direct mailings, or over the Internet. Other small business owners in this sector are wholesalers—they sell products to businesses that buy them for resale or for company use. A high proportion of small businesses in this sector provide professional, business, or personal services.

                                                          References
Forbes, “World’s Billionaires: Mark Zuckerberg,” Forbes, http://www.forbes.com/profile/mark-zuckerberg (accessed August 31, 2011).

Isidro, I. M., “Geese Police: A Real-Life Home Business Success Story,” PowerHomeBiz.com (2008), http://www.powerhomebiz.com/OnlineSuccess/geesepolice.htm (accessed October 8, 2008).

Isidro, I., “Riding High on the Wave of Success, RedWagons.com,” PowerHomeBiz.com, http://www.powerhomebiz.com/OnlineSuccess/redwagons.htm (accessed August 31, 2011).

Reveal Entertainment at http://www.revealgames.com (accessed August 31, 2011).

Small Business Administration, “July 2010 – Preliminary Information on Business Owner Demographics by the U.S. Census Bureau,” Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy, http://www.sba.gov/advocacy/850/12493 (accessed August 31, 2011).

The World Fact Book, “GDP Composition by Sector,” The World Fact Book, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2012.html (accessed August 31, 2011).

Source: https://open.lib.umn.edu/exploringbusiness
7
Business Industry news / Business types and industries
« Last post by Rokeya on December 25, 2018, 10:50:30 PM »
Each business type and industry has different legal, operational and business needs. Before you start your business, it's important that you understand how these obligations will affect your business.

Business types
Some of the most common business types are below:

Established business
Buying an established business can save you time and help you hit the ground running. However, there are risks involved, including previous business debts and existing staff issues. Find out the pros and cons to buying an established business and the steps you can take to ensure a smooth hand over.

Family business
Taking over the family business? It can be a great solution for everyone, but also has its challenges. To help your family business run smoothly, read 10 tips for family businesses.

Foreign business
If you’re not an Australian citizen or permanent resident and want to start a business in Australia you’ll need to know the requirements that apply to Australian businesses. Find out the basics on coming to Australia to start a business.

Franchise business
Like any business decision, you should consider franchising carefully. Franchising is unique with its own legal requirements and code of conduct where you need to follow the right processes. You should consider professional or legal advice, or read more about buying and owning a franchise before you start.

Home-based business
Working from home can be convenient and a more flexible way of running a business. You can maximise your success by understanding the risks and government requirements that apply to you. Find out what to consider before starting a home-based business.

Import or export business
There are certain permits you need before you start to import or export products. Doing your research early on will help you follow the correct steps and regulations and avoid penalties.

Find out what you need to do and where to go for assistance before you start your importing or exporting business.

Indigenous businesses
The steps to start, run and grow an Indigenous business are much like running any other business in Australia. However, there is some additional government support and assistance available to Indigenous business owners.

Online business

The way you operate your online business will depend on the type of products or services you offer. Having a plan early on can lay the foundation for an effective online presence regardless of the option you choose.

If you want to set up a business website, online shop, blog or social media account, check out our section on Marketing to find out more.

Starting a business as a young person
If you're young and have an entrepreneurial spirit, don't worry! You can still start a business as a minor with some proper planning and information.

Read more about starting a business as a young person.

Industry types
Each industry has its own unique legal, operational and business requirements. You may be:

a plumber looking for the latest code
a retailer checking your workplace health and safety requirements
a business undertaking market research for your business plan.
Our industry fact sheets can help you find the information you need. Or speak to one of your industry associations or find your nearest business adviser.

Source: https://www.business.gov.au
8
Effective Communication Skills / Developing Effective Communication Skills
« Last post by Rokeya on December 23, 2018, 11:26:22 PM »
                                                                          Improving Communication:
                                                              Developing Effective Communication Skill

       Effective communication skills are fundamental to success in many aspects of life.  Many jobs require strong communication skills and people with good communication skills usually enjoy better interpersonal relationships with friends and family.
Effective communication is a key interpersonal skill and learning how we can improve our communication has many benefits.

Learn to Listen
Listening is not the same as hearing; learn to listen not only to the words being spoken but how they are being spoken and the non-verbal messages sent with them. Use the techniques of clarification and reflection to confirm what the other person has said and avoid any confusion. Try not to think about what to say next whilst listening; instead clear your mind and focus on the message being received. Your friends, colleagues and other acquaintances will appreciate good listening skills.

Be Aware of Other People's Emotions
Be sympathetic to other people's misfortunes and congratulate their positive landmarks.  To do this you need to be aware of what is going on in other people’s lives.  Make and maintain eye contact and use first names where appropriate.  Do not be afraid to ask others for their opinions as this will help to make them feel valued.

Consider the emotional effect of what you are saying and communicate within the norms of behaviour acceptable to the other person.

Take steps to become more charismatic. See our page: Emotional Intelligence for more information.

Empathise
Empathy is trying to see things from the point-of-view of others. When communicating with others, try not to be judgemental or biased by preconceived ideas or beliefs - instead view situations and responses from the other person’s perspective.  Stay in tune with your own emotions to help enable you to understand the emotions of others.

If appropriate, offer your personal viewpoint clearly and honestly to avoid confusion.  Bear in mind that some subjects might be taboo or too emotionally stressful for others to discuss.

Encourage
Offer words and actions of encouragement, as well as praise, to others. Make other people feel welcome, wanted, valued and appreciated in your communications. If you let others know that they are valued, they are much more likely to give you their best.  Try to ensure that everyone involved in an interaction or communication is included through effective body language and the use of open questions.

More on body language, non-verbal communication and questioning.
Be aware of the messages you are sending via non-verbal channels: make eye contact and avoid defensive body language.  Present information in a way that its meaning can be clearly understood. Pay particular attention to differences in culture, past experiences, attitudes and abilities before conveying your message.  Avoid jargon and over-complicated language; explain things as simply as possible. Request clarification if unclear about a message.  Always avoid racist and sexist terms or any language that may cause offence.

More on Verbal Communication and Non-verbal communication - also see Effective Speaking and Building Rapport.

Use Humour
Laughing releases endorphins that can help relieve stress and anxiety; most people like to laugh and will feel drawn to somebody who can make them laugh. Don’t be afraid to be funny or clever, but do ensure your humour is appropriate to the situation.  Use your sense of humour to break the ice, to lower barriers and gain the affection of others.  By using appropriate humour you will be perceived as more charismatic.

See our page: Developing a Sense of Humour for more information.

Treat People Equally
Always aim to communicate on an equal basis and avoid patronising people.  Do not talk about others behind their backs and try not to develop favourites: by treating people as your equal and also equal to each other you will build trust and respect.  Check that people understand what you have said to avoid confusion and negative feelings.  Encourage open and honest feedback from the receiver to ensure your message is understood and to avoid the receiver instead feeding back what they think you want to hear.  If confidentiality is an issue, make sure its boundaries are known and ensure its maintenance.

Attempt to Resolve Conflict

Learn to troubleshoot and resolve problems and conflicts as they arise. Learn how to be an effective mediator and negotiator. Use your listening skills to hear and understand both sides of any argument - encourage and facilitate people to talk to each other. Try not to be biased or judgemental but instead ease the way for conflict resolution.

Our section: Conflict Resolution and Mediation can help here.

Maintain a Positive Attitude and Smile
Few people want to be around someone who is frequently miserable.  Do your best to be friendly, upbeat and positive with other people. Maintain a positive, cheerful attitude to life: when things do not go to plan, stay optimistic and learn from your mistakes. If you smile often and stay cheerful, people are more likely to respond positively to you.

See our pages on Personal Presentation and Positive Thinking for more.

Minimise Stress
Some communication scenarios are, by their nature, stressful. Stress can however be a major barrier to effective communication, all parties should try to remain calm and focused.

For tips and advice about stress relief and avoidance see our pages: Avoiding Stress and Tips for Relieving Stress. It is also important to learn how to relax we have a series of pages covering Relaxation Techniques.

Only Complain when Absolutely Necessary
People will not be drawn to you if you are constantly complaining or whinging.  If something makes you angry or upset, wait for a few hours and calm down before taking action.  If you do complain, do so calmly, try to find some positive aspects to the situation and avoid giving unnecessary criticism.


Source: https://www.skillsyouneed.com
9
The ability to communicate is a valuable asset. Good communicators make more money. Studies show that oral communication is one of the most important competencies for college grads entering the workforce. Successful entrepreneurs are more likely to be excellent communicators, and that’s no coincidence.

A family member of mine once had an amazing idea for a gadget. In fact, it was such a good idea that he worked on perfecting it until he was able to secure a U.S. patent. We were all convinced his invention was a winner. In fact, it seemed to have a lot of intriguing applications. What a goldmine!

But, as it turns out, the invention never reached its potential, and the inventor is not rich. Why? There are multiple reasons, but a large part of the problem was that he wasn’t able to communicate his idea to manufacturers effectively. No one seemed to understand why they should pick up this brilliant gadget and put it into production.

For contrast, let’s consider Michael Faraday, the nineteenth-century English scientist who discovered many of the fundamental laws of physics and chemistry. Although he had little formal education, he was a great communicator. He could simplify complex scientific explanations so that even a child could understand them. Between 1827 and 1860, Faraday gave a series of nineteen Christmas lectures for young people at the Royal Institution in London, a series which continues today. His efforts to communicate clearly made him one of the most influential voices in scientific history.

Communication matters. Here are a few of the most important communication skills to hone.

Listening
You might not think of listening as a communication skill, but it’s at the top of this list for a reason. Have you ever chatted with a person who rattled on and never gave you the chance to get a word in edgewise? That person might be a world class talker, but they’re certainly not a good communicator.

Listening to a person teaches us how to communicate with them. Their contributions to the conversation provide important insights and context. It’s a good rule of thumb to listen more than you talk. When you find common ground, speak up and share your own thoughts and stories. Just resist going on too long. If you want to be interesting to others, you have to be interested in them.

Don’t forget to ask clarifying questions. When someone offloads a lot of information at once, you might simply say “Okay, let me run this back to be sure I have it straight” and then reiterate what the speaker said. Repeating pertinent parts of a conversation shows that you were listening. It also helps you get things clear in your own head so you’re less likely to misunderstand or forget what was said. This skill is especially valuable when it comes to technical matters or instructions.

Clarity
Clarity is huge. It’s important—it prevents your listener from having to ask “Say what, now?” (And it’s critical in writing, where the reader can’t interrupt to ask for clarification.) Often, what we say makes sense in our own heads but we fail to consider that our listener doesn’t have the same context. Every time you use a pronoun like he, she, or they, make certain the listener knows who that pronoun refers to. Ditto for other nonspecific words like it and this.

I was hoping we could get a better handle on this.
This phrase might leave the listener asking, “Get a better handle on what?”

I was hoping we could get a better handle on pronoun reference rules.
The correct example gets specific, so we don’t have to ask what. That’s clarity in action. Use it in speaking and perfect it in writing and you’ll be far less likely to be misunderstood.

Openness
Have you ever encountered a person who kept their arms folded and didn’t make eye contact when you approached? That person may have simply been distracted or preoccupied, but odds are you read their body language as unfriendly and you didn’t make an effort to talk.

If you want to communicate, you have to look open to it. Uncross those arms! Make eye contact. Smile. Although I tend to be on the quiet side until I get to know a person, I became great friends with someone in a singing group I belong to all because he took a moment to shoot me a smile and a friendly nod, which made me feel he was someone I could approach and say hello to. You never know where a little openness might lead!

Empathy
One of my favorite fictional characters, Atticus Finch from Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird, said, “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view . . . until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.”

That’s what empathy is, and it’s essential to good communication. We all walk around in our own little worlds, but to make a connection with someone requires the ability to put yourself in that person’s place and try to understand their point of view. When you do that, the snippy sales clerk becomes a person who might be slogging through a difficult day, the bratty toddler in the next line becomes a tired and overstimulated child, and his wheedling parent becomes an exhausted mom at the end of her tether.

When you’re able to empathize, you can approach conversations calmly and rationally. You might wish the sales clerk a good day and offer the weary mom a smile, or even a helping hand, when everyone else is glaring daggers. Whether you’re at work, at home, or hanging out with friends, empathy skills can help you defuse emotionally charged situations.

Energy
Think of some of your favorite people to talk with. Odds are, they’re usually upbeat and full of life. We’re naturally drawn to people who lift our moods. If you’re capable of it, try to be just a little more energetic than the person you’re speaking with. It’s possible to show enthusiasm for a topic even if it happens to be difficult. Be engaged. Lean in. Listen intently. We naturally like people who can elevate a conversation rather than bring it down.

Communicating effectively doesn’t come naturally to everyone. Some of us have to work at it. And working at it means being conscious of the things we can do to improve. Communication didn’t come naturally to Michael Faraday—he took notes and observed other lecturers and worked hard to improve. But he proved that developing good communication skills enables a person’s intelligence and ideas to shine through. It’s worth the effort.

Source: https://www.grammarly.com
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Quality and Process Track / Manufacturing & Quality Control
« Last post by Rokeya on December 23, 2018, 10:53:24 PM »

Fierce competition and shrinking resources mean that companies need to carefully assess their processes to remain profitable. Efficient manufacturing and quality control practices are necessary to stay competitive. This forces more and more companies to eliminate time consuming manual processes and replace them with automated solutions.


Track your productsDistribution
Vero can provide complete tracking and end-to-end traceability of products during your manufacturing process and beyond.

By using latest RFID technology, Vero tracks the location of your products during the manufacturing process and during subsequent quality procedures. Handheld readers allow you to identify individual products off-site to detect counterfeit goods or unauthorised re-imports.

Improve your quality processes
Tracking products or equipment manually through quality assessment and assurance processes can be a time-consuming and costly exercise. With Vero’s Quality Tracking solution you can automatically record quality assurance processes to provide complete visibility and ensure compliance.

Using an automated tracking system considerably reduces search times, as well as the associated labour costs and business process delays. It ensure quality records are accurate by eliminating errors typically associated with manual processes.

Track your equipment
In manufacturing environments manually keeping track of your moveable equipment such as tools, test equipment and safety devices can be a challenge. Knowing exactly where your assets are can save time when trying to locate them for use, testing or maintenance.

Using Vero’s latest RFID location technology provides a cost effective way to automatically track your equipment. It enables you to locate assets quickly when they are needed and reduce the number of lost or stolen items by promoting account ability and assigning assets to specific an individual, a department or contractor.

Improve your manufacturing process (WIP)
VeroTrack provides a cost effective solution to track your products through production processes using RFID or advanced optical technology. Manufacturing processes can be monitored end-to-end or in part to support lean processes, just-in-time manufacturing and the application of the Six Sigma methodology. By tracking products through the manufacturing process it can highlight bottlenecks, optimise production routes and significantly reduce quality variations and rejects.

Interfacing with your ERP systems can ensure that particular production processes are triggered for specific items on the production line eliminating errors and thereby promoting quality and customer satisfaction.

Source: https://vero.solutions/solutions/manufacturing-quality-control
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